New sensors for trace moisture analyzer
Detection of gaseous moisture in ppmV level is very important in certain industries. CGCRI has developed a device to detect moisture in the range of 0-1000 ppmV based on micro and nano-porous alumina sensors. Important areas of application of these trace moisture analyzers are in measurement of moisture in gases of glove boxes as well as in industrial environment involving high quality welding, nuclear reactors, food pack aging, pharmaceuticals, laser marking, submarine periscope purging, etc. Most of the moisture sensors in the trace moisture level have not yet come into commercial production in India. The sensors are being imported at a cost of around £500 for various industrial uses. It is a low-cost indigenous technology for Trace Moisture Analyzer based on new sensors. Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad, under their 'National Search for Innovation' scheme, awarded gold medal to CGCRI for developing this technology.
Non-Linear junction detector for explosives
A Non-Linear Junction Detector (NLJD) is used for detection of all kinds of non- linear junctions, which may be semiconductor or metallic. The specific function of the system is to detect the electronic devices meant for detonating the Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) and Improvised Explosive Device Disposal (IEDD). Due to global environment of international terrorism, there has been a well-identified requirement for security and specific detection equipments. Regular explosions are posing serious threat to day-to-day life of citizens worldwide. In the recent past, land mines and explosives are detonated with the help of remote control and electronic timers.
CSIO has developed a portable, field operatable hand-held NLJD system, which is an advanced detector using the Harmonic Radar principle to aid the security professionals in the search of concealed electronic devices and other similar items such as timers or remote control receivers for detonation of explosive dormant and non-operational devices.
Very few companies are producing these systems worldwide and are selling their products at very exorbitant prices to India and to other countries. CSIO is the first to develop this instrument indigenously.
Devices like Radio Transmitters, Power Amplified Microphones and Electronic Timers etc. contain non-linear junctions and will be detected even if they are embedded in the Cabinets and either in conducting or non-conducting states. NLJD can also be used for scanning the Aircraft and Podium. It is used by para-military forces for scanning the area before Republic Day and Independence Day Parades to detect presence of concealed timers/transmitters. The NLJD fabricated using SMD components has powerful discrimination against false targets.
The instrument has been tested and evaluated in CSIO, New Delhi. The performance of the instrument was demonstrated to external experts from paramilitary forces. The users of this device are various security agencies like, Armed Forces, Paramilitary Forces, State Police Departments, National Security Guards, Special Protection Group, Railway Protection Force, and Many Other Security Agencies.
The know-how of this instrument has been transferred to M/s Astra Microwave Products Ltd., Hyderabad.
At present, there is a demand of about 50 units of NLJD by various bomb disposal squads, state police and para-military forces in the country.
Highly sensitive explosive detector
CSIO has developed a highly sensitive explosive detector. The instrument works on the principle of gas chromatography, which separates the mixture of volatile compounds when they flow through the chromatographic column containing a stationary phase, through which the stream of inert gases passes continuously. As different components in the mixture interact differently with the stationary phase they emerge out of the column after different retention times. It is well known that all modern organic- explosives emit organo-nitro compounds to a greater or lesser extent depending on the type of explosives. The detection of explosives is made by utilizing their electron capturing property, common to all organo-nitro compounds.
The instrument utilizes twin chromatographic columns (one empty and other coated with stationary phase) coupled to two independent electron capture detectors. The empty column ECD immediately responds to electron capturing compound whereas coated column ECD responds according to the retention time of compound in coated column.
The explosive detector developed at CSIO detects vapors and particulates of low vapor pressure organic explosives such as TNT, EGDN, NG, PETN, RDX, HMX, RDX+TNT.
The system provides greater selectivity and sensitivity. The option of needle probe permits accurate searching of packages and baggage. The detector is housed in an executive briefcase and is completely self-contained with a rechargeable battery and argon gas cylinder housed within the brief case.
Fast optical pyrometer for transient explosion temperature
CSIO has designed & developed a Fast Optical Pyrometer to measure transient explosion temperature in the range of 1,000-10,000 K where the detonating response time is of the order of 100 nsecs. The instrument consists of focusing optics, fiber optic beam splitter (50/50), interference filters, optical to electrical (O-E) converters and application software.
Light emitted from the transient explosion is collected by the focusing optics, which focuses the light on to the tip of the fiber optic beam splitter. The fiber optic beam splitter (200/230 µm) splits the light (50/50) into two channels. In each channel, the ends of the fiber optic beam splitter are connected to the collimating optics, which provides the collimated light beam. The collimated beams in each channel are made to pass through the chosen interference filters. After passing through the interference filters, the light is made to fall on the focusing optics, which focuses the light on the tip of the fiber optic cable (200/230 µm). The other ends of these fiber optic cables are connected to the optical to electrical converters. The output of the optical to electrical converter is then displayed on the oscilloscope that gives the intensities of the signals from both the channels. The values of the signals (in volts) in both the channels correspond to the respective intensities. These intensities, N(l1,T) & N(l2,T), are then being used as input values to the software module for temperature calculations.
The software is organized in five sub-modules. Module-1 is used for the selection of the interference filters to be used for the measurement of the required temperature. Module- 2 is used for interpolating the emissivity values w.r.t wavelengths based on a set of standard emissivity values for the detonation material under use. Module-3 is used to generate the emissivity values w.r.t. Temperature. Once these data are available, these are used in Module-4 to calculate the temperature that is directly displayed on the monitor. The instrument is simple to use, highly accurate and modular in approach.
Clinical chemistry analyser for blood biochemical parameters
CSIO has developed Clinical Chemistry Analyser, which is a high performance Micro-controller based photometric biochemistry analyzer used to measure various blood biochemical parameters such as Blood Glucose, Urea, Protein, Bilirubin etc. that are associated with various disorders such as diabetes, kidney diseases, liver malfunctions and other metabolic derangements. The quantisation of these parameters is helpful in classifying such diseases and under appropriate circumstances results of the system are used for diagnostic purposes.
System hardware is based on 8031 Micro-controller. This is interfaced with 64 Kbytes of EPROM for monitor and control program and 24 Kbytes of RAM with battery back up for temporary data storing and 24 hour results storage capacity, 12 bit A/D converter for converting analog OD into digital form, I/O devices 8255 are used for interfacing 30 keys keyboard for selecting various functions of the system, Graphical LCD module for displaying various parameters and result of each test, Real Time Clock for displaying date and time on LCD, 40 columns mini printer for hard copy of the results, temperature sensor LM335 and Pettier device for sample heating and cooling, roller type peristaltic pump for sample aspiration and optical module. Menu driven software is written in C language.
Pneumatically driven anaesthesia ventilator
CSIO has developed a pneumatically driven Anaesthesia Ventilator, which delivers breaths to supply a specific volume of breathing gas to a patient at a desired breathing rate. It also maintains required duration for inspiration and expiration.
The Ventilator has three basic sub-systems:-
- Bellow system supported by pneumatic driving components.
- Microcontroller based control system for Ventilator parameter control, monitoring and alarms for safety.
- A closed circuit rebreathing circle absorber type patient circuit.
CSIO has fabricated the Ventilator including the sub-systems in-house. For control of the breathing, the three independent control parameters i.e Respiratory Rate, Tidal Volume & Inspiratory Flow are set through the control panel of the instrument where signal processing circuit designed by using a microcontroller has been used. The system has safety features and has several alarms.
Smart biosensor based on ion-Sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET)
CEERI has fabricated ISFET biosensor using metal gate NMOS technology with the Glucose Oxidase (GOD) enzyme immobilized over the silicon dioxide-silicon nitride dual-dielectric gate in place of the conventional metal gate electrode. The device has a high aspect ratio (W/L~400) N-channel enhancement mode FET with interdigitated source-drain geometry and the channel length of 12 mm. The ISFET chip has been mounted on ceramic substrate and the wire bonds have been protected with insulating epoxy.
The device has biomedical applications e.g. in clinical pathology and food and beverage industry. Advantages include; small size, instant response, ruggedness, mass scale production, low-cost and reliability. The device has impact on health care and food processing instrumentation.
Packaging technology for ISFET bio-sensor
The technology for packaging of ISFET Bio-sensor chip has been developed by CEERI with following specifications: 3mm x 3mm chip having two ISFETs has been packaged on 7.8mm x 8.5mm alumina substrate. The critical problem of encapsulation of selective areas of ISFET chip has been sorted out by developing a special process called “AIR JET TECHNIQUE”. After leads attachment, wire bonding, bonded wires and selective area of the chip, except sensing part, have been protected using insulating epoxy. The package has 7 leads with a pitch of 50 mil. The packaged ISFET sensor has been employed in testing of sugar content in a number of fruit juices successfully. This can be used for analyzing glucose, urea, pencillin and acetylcholine in medical reusable applications
Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) surface micro-machined capacitive pressure sensor
CEERI has fabricated high sensitivity, low-cost and surface micromachined capacitive pressure sensors with chip Size – 4 mm x 3.2 mm, chip Thickness – 0.5 mm, configuration – 10 x 10 Arrays, pressure range – 0-700 Psi.
The packaging can be done as per the user demand and is compatible with CMOS VLSI.
These sensors find application in number of strategic areas like space, atomic energy and defense. Industrial applications in automobile, structural health monitoring and process control instrumentation needs a large variety of these sensors in different package configurations. A variety of sensors are also needed in human health related miniaturized diagnostic instruments. The demand of these is expected to grow extremely fast in times to come.
Strategic development of Micro-Travelling Wave Tube (TWT) and its sub-assemblies for Microwave Power Module (MPM)
CEERI has designed, fabricated and tested Electron Guns (2 numbers) for Micro-TWT and Multi Aperture Test Vehicle to get the correct information of beam waist and throw for electron gun trajectory. Also an In-house developed package ‘MAGFLD’ for Periodic Permanent Magnet (PPM) System design for Micro-TWT with experimentally measured values has been validated.
Microwave Power Module (MPM) is a hybrid super-component, which combines the best attributes of both the vacuum tubes and solid-state devices to provide a high power, high efficiency amplifier in a compact size. This MPM consists of a micro-TWT, a solid-state amplifier, an electronic power conditioner and a power control system packaged into a single compact module. The development of MPM is considered a major technological breakthrough in broadband microwave power amplifiers. The design and development of 6 to 18 GHz, 80 W (CW) MPM would help the nation in becoming self-reliant in this vital area. This development is of strategic importance since these Micro-TWT and MPMs are available with few companies in the world.
Fluidized bed separator
Separation of cenospheres is an essential requirement in the area of mineral processing. RRL-Bhopal has developed a Fluidized Bed Separator for the same. Preliminary results indicate that cenospheres coarser than 45 microns can be selectively recovered using this separation system. Further, this size of separation can either be increased or decreased by controlling the process conditions while separation.
The machine is also suitable for different classification and concentration of different minerals, coal, separation of contaminants from the polymer waste products etc. The unit works under the principles of counteracting forces of fluidization water against the setting velocities of particles. Due to inverted conical shape of the separation chamber, a velocity gradient of water (maximum at the bottom and minimum at the top) is generated. This velocity gradient of water segregates relatively coarser particles at smaller heights from the bottom of the separation chamber. This enhances the entrapment of the finer fraction from the coarser material. Similarly, the coarser fractions do not get entrained in the finer fractions because of decreasing velocity zones at increasing heights. Thus the system operates at higher efficiency.
Process control automation for paper converter machine
CEERI has designed & developed a Distributed Control System (DCS) based Electronic Control System for Online Measurement of coat weight, coat moisture, roughness and sheet temperature to control the paper converter process to improve the quality of the coated paper. Optical sensors have been used to control these parameters. The DCS system has been based on AC-70 process controller. Two scanning frames have been incorporated in the system to measure the coat weight and coat moisture and sheet temperature. Online display control system is used to see the display of real time trend of all parameters at an operator workstation. User-friendly human machine interface software is developed and compatible with Windows NT based operator workstation with 19” color monitor interfaced with DCS system through a Modbus Communication. The system has been successfully installed and commissioned at M/s Rohit Pulp and Paper Mills Ltd., Vapi, Gujarat.
Low cost Cu-conductor process
CEERI has developed a novel and low-cost Cu-conductor process compatible to thick film technology for handling high current requirement of power hybrids. Novelties of the process include excellent leaching resistance, excellent adherence and low-cost (about 40% less than the conventional metallisation).
The improvement lies in higher current carrying capacity i.e. three times that of conventional Pd-Ag thick film conductor. This technology does not require additional expensive equipment and high purity nitrogen. Shelf-life problem associated with other thick film materials and processes has been overcome by using this innovative technique. This process has been used for development of three types of power HMCs namely, Alternator Regulator, Head Light Flasher and Horn Hybrid Module for automotive applications.
Radiation resistant optical components for CCTV nuclear camera developed & fabricated
CGCRI has developed, fabricated and supplied complete optical system for an indigenous CCTV nuclear camera used for remote viewing of the interior of the reactor coolant tubes. This remote is very important for effective and timely servicing of the nuclear reactors. The system is required for focussing, illumination, mirror rotation, etc. to aid viewing for remotized controls. The device developed at CGCRI replaces the earlier ones, which were being imported and are not readily available.
The optical system has been successfully deployed in the 230/550 MWe Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) at Kalpakkam and at Kaiga of the Nuclear Power Corporation Ltd.
The optical components have a service life exceeding 100 hours in water-filled environment of 1 M rad/h radiation, pressure of 10 atmospheres at a temperature of 100oC. Components worth Rs. 1.6 million have already been supplied and additional orders are under execution. This work has contributed to self-reliance in a high tech area and resulted in significant cost saving for the users.
New rare earth based glass and glass-ceramic phosphors developed for compact fluorescent lamps and cathode ray tube display screens
Phosphors are used in lamps for illumination in cathode ray tube (CRT) for visual display. Although total amount of phosphors produced per year in the world is around 25,000 tons, not even a single kilogram of phosphor is produced in India. CGCRI has studied the basic mechanism of luminescence of the various commercially used phorphors and developed indigenous technology for production of these phosphors in the country. Technology for the preparation of total of five commercially used phosphors namely (Ba, Ca, Mg)1O(P04)6Clz : EU+2 (Blue-green luminescence), (Sr,Mg)3 (P04)2 : Sn +2 (Yellowish red luminescence), Y203 : EU+3 (red luminescence), (Sr, Ca, Ba)1O(P04)6Clz : Eu +2 (Blue luminescence) and LaP04 : Ce +3, Tb +3 (green luminescence) have been successfully developed. Out of these five phosphors former two are commercially used in high pressure discharge lamps while latter three are used in tri-band compact fluorescent lamps (CFL).Y203:Eu+3 - phosphor (also used in CRT display screen).
Scientists of CGCRI have also developed a new generation bi-chromatic ceramic phosphor, which emits simultaneously the green and red light. A new theory has been put forward on the mechanism of charge compensation in apatite based phosphors.
Novel cellular Silicon Carbide (SiC) based ceramics from plant precursor
Macro- and microstructure of naturally grown plants realize excellent strength, high stiffness, elasticity, damage tolerance and flexibility. CGCRI’s concept explores the intrinsic hierarchic design of structural and anatomical features of plants to develop unique classes of Silicon Carbide (SiC)-based ceramics. To test the concept dense Si-SiC duplex ceramic composites and highly porous SiC ceramics in the image of the morphological features inherent in the caudex stem of a local monocotyledonous plant have been synthesized. The process route involves making of a carbonaceousous biopreform and its subsequent reaction with an infiltrating silicon melt to yield the biomorphic Si-SiC ceramic composites. The Si-SiC composites are transformable into porous SiC ceramics with complete preservation of micro cellular anatomy of the parent plant, by depleting residual silicon phase in channel pores through reaction with carbon.
Water filter for removal of Trihalomethanes [THMs]
In view of health hazards associated with THMs formation on chlorination, NEERI has developed a Water Filter capable of removing chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane and bromoform at the concentrations of 200 mg L-1 from tap water supply. The developed system is portable, tap attachable, useful at a household level and easy to operate even by unskilled persons.
Rejuvenation of iron, copper and zinc mine spoil dump and mined land productivity through integrated biotechnological approach
NEERI, under a collaborative effort with Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Govt. of India and Swedish Agency for Research Cooperation with developing countries (SAREC), Sweden, has adopted a two-front Integrated Biotechnological Approach (IBA) for the prevention of heavy metal leaching from overheaps and for rejuvenation of productivity in copper, zinc and iron mine lands and spoil dumps through identification of appropriate blends of organic waste and mine spoil for rhizospheric development.
Three different metal mine sites (5 hectares each) selected were Iron ore open cast mine under Sesa Goa Ltd., Kodli, Goa; Malanjkhand open cast copper mine under Hindustan Copper Ltd., Malanjkhand, Madhya Pradesh and Zawar underground zinc mine under Hindustan Zinc Ltd., Udaipur, Rajasthan.
Physico-chemical and microbiological analyses of mine spoil dumps tailings from these sites are carried out. The native flora of all these three sites is surveyed and plants in abundance and maximum frequency of occurrence are selected and planted at these sites. Pot culture studies are also conducted to ascertain the enrichment in spoil quality, growth response of selected plant species and to identify appropriate blends of soil, mine spoil and organic waste.
The studies on metal uptake by pot culture plants shows that addition of biofertilizer and organic amendment decrease the uptake of various heavy metals like Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu, Cd and Ni by plants.
Lysimeters are installed at NEERI to study the effect of organic amendment with Farm Yard Manure (FYM) on leaching properties of different metal mines spoil.
Based on the pot culture studies, treatment involving 1 part soil + 4 part spoil + 50 tonnes/hectare FYM + biofertilizers was selected for implementation at field level at all the three mine sites. Local species of plants having high economical and ecological value are planted on an area of 5 hectares each at all the three mine sites. After a periodic interval of six months, spoil/ tailing samples were collected and analyzed to find out the improvements in physico-chemical and microbiological status. Growth performance study of different plants species is also carried out at all the three metal mine spoil dumps.
Piezometers are installed at iron and zinc mine spoil dump sites and leachate samples are analyzed to study the effect of vegetation and impact of organic material on the mobilization of heavy metal ions from the heaps of metal mine spoil dumps.
The barren iron mine spoil dump at Codli mine under Sesa Goa Limited is revegetated by plantation of 8000 plants of 29 varieties of different plant species locally available nearby the vicinity of mine site. Apart from barren mine spoil dump, tailing site at Hindustan Copper Limited at Malanjkhand is also revegetated by plantation of 10,000 plants of 17 different species on an area of 5 hectares. At Zawar Zinc Mine, Udaipur, multi-species plantation is carried out on an area of 5 hectares of barren tailing site. About 8,000 plants of 30 different species are planted on the tailing site.
Surface modified zeolite: a versatile material for Volatile Organic Carbon (VOC) monitoring
NEERl has used cost effective flyash based zeolites (FAZs), synthesized by its patented process, to resolve serious environmental problems pertaining to indoor air pollution being faced by human beings. Human, which spends more than 80% of the time indoor, their exposure to volatile organic carbon (VOCs) being generated from myriad sources at homes viz. combustion of fuels, paints, varnishes etc. is substantially high. This is being correlated with higher incidences of diseases being reported in rural and urban areas. Accurate identification and quantification of VOCs is required which is not possible with conventional method of monitoring which lacks selectivity and versatility. To overcome this problem a new class of material has been developed as an alternate to conventional adsorbent to help in identifying the various VOCs and in turn help in providing suitable measures to mitigate its health effects on human beings.
Hydrogen sulphide inhibition system
RRL-Trivandrum has invented the hydrogen sulphide inhibition system for anaerobic system of sulphide effluent. Alembic Chemicals Ltd., Vadodara has implemented this system in its effluent treatment plant. The sulphide control process designed for Alembic consists of two stage sparged tanks for hydrogen sulphide removal from anaerobic reactor recirculated liquor by air stripping and gas bio-filtration for off-gas odour control.
Natural Fibre Composite Door Shutters
Viewing the potential of natural fibres, CBRI investigated their rational utilization as reinforcement in unsaturated polyester resin. The selection of sisal/jute fibres is made on the basis of their structure-property relationships. Surface modification on jute/sisal fibres has been done in order to make it more moisture resistant by attaching long chain hydrocarbons onto their surface. Water resistant composites are prepared from these surface modified fibres and unsaturated polyester resin under compression at a pressure of 10-12kg/cm2 for 1 hour. These composite laminates meet IS:12406-88 in terms of physico-mechanical properties and performance characteristics.
Composite door shutters are prepared by bonding the jute/sisal laminates face with plastics wood slab core. These door shutters conform IS: 4020-98 and exhibit superior performance as experienced in the existing alternatives for conventional doors. The thermal conductivity (U-value) of the door panel was ~ 0.18 kcal/hr/oC/m2 and its screw withdrawal strength was ~ 1500 N, compared to the typically specified value of >1000 N for wood. the door passes the end immersion test. The weight of door is ~12 kg/m2. Fixtures such as handles, locks and hinges can be fixed in the finished door shutters without adding any wooden blocks. The cost of the composite door (30mm thickness) is comparable to the conventional ones.
CBRI has also prepared Techno-economic feasibility report of natural fibre composite door shutter. Commercial trials were also carried out. The know-how on the manufacturing of door shutters has been transferred to M/S Artglas industries, Jhotwara, Jaipur.
Mechanised casting of reinforced concrete cored units for roof/ floor
Roofing in a building is a major item with respect to construction cost. The reinforced concrete cored unit is a fast growing single item for use as roofing / flooring member. It is a box type structure with circular hollows in the center of the unit throughout its length. The unit is structurally complete in it and does not require any support or propping during placement. The roof slab construction using cored units is upto 30% lighter than a cast in-situ slab.
CBRI, in order to improve the quality of cast cored units, produced by semi- machanised process, designed and fabricated prototype using up-graded technology of casting 300, 600 and 900 mm wide and upto 4.0 m long cored units with a production rate of 20-30 units per day using pressure - vibration technique.
For casting the concrete cored units in different dimensions i.e. width & length, the mould sides are rigidly connected to the steel pallet through taper pins and wedges.
The concrete in the mould is fed by the concrete feeder moving on rollers along the length of mould on a channel track. The concrete is poured in the mould in two stages. The pressure plunger is brought downward by operating two hydraulic jacks fitted on the top of the reaction frame. The concrete in the mould is vibrated under pressure (upto 100 gm/cm2). The vibrating cores are withdrawn from the concrete by operating a power winch after terminating the vibrations while maintaining the pressure on the concrete.
Followed by a series of various processing steps during 28 days the units become ready for use.
The units produced using the upgraded technology have been tested as per relevant BIS code and found superior in strength and quality.
Structural concretes containing fly ash aggregates
Environmental considerations are receiving increased attention with regard to industrial by- products, such as fly ash. Since, construction industry forms a very significant segment of national economy, utility of industrial by-products in this sector is going to be one of the important avenues of disposal of the industrial waste products in near future.
SERC has prepared a state-of-the-art report on use of Fly Ash Aggregates (FAA) covering various aspects such as production technology of FAA, characteristics of FAA including mix design and durability aspects. In particular the report mentions the advantages of FAA such as lower thermal conductivity, better fire resistance besides lower density. Laboratory trials were also made to prepare bonded FAAs using the modified concrete drum mixer using locally available fly ash. Test data generated indicate that due to lower self-weight of FAA, the concrete produced is lightweight in nature.
Artificial neural network in structural shape optimization
Optimal design of structural shapes is an important branch of structural optimization relevant to the fields of mechanical, aeronautical, automotive and civil engineering disciplines. Here the best structural shapes from the point of view of a specific design function is to be obtained in a design environment consulting of other behavioral, geometrical and technological constraints. Shape optimization using gradient less approach is very time consuming because of its slow convergence. To reduce the computational time, RRL-Bhopal has used artificial neural networks. Neural networks are trained based on the results of first few iterations of gradient less method. Trained networks are used to predict the further shape modifications. Four numerical examples, cantilever beam, circular plate with square hole, fixed ends beam and bracket, are successfully optimized using proposed approach. It is interesting to note that upto 67 % computational time can be curtailed by using the proposed approach.
Optimum design of die profile for extrusion of aluminum tubes is usually carried out using finite element technique. RRL-Bhopal has developed indigenous software for this purpose that has the capabilities to account large strain and large rotation occurring during forming process. Based on the stress, strain and energy distribution
Estimation of seismic vulnerability of buildings in Delhi
It has been highlighted time and again that Delhi, capital city of India, might face an earthquake of magnitude of 7 on Richter scale in future, based on history of earthquake and the geotechnical setting in the background. Delhi, being the socio-political and economic nerve center of the country, demands much more attention from planners, engineers and decision-makers towards disaster preparedness. CBRI has carried out detailed assessment of seismic vulnerability of existing building stock in Delhi area based on two approaches namely Demand Capacity Ratio (DCR) approach & Rapid Screening Procedure (RSP).
For practical reasons, Delhi is divided into 134 numbers of municipal wards as delineated by Municipal Corporation of Delhi. Based upon the reconnaissance survey of buildings in each ward, 25-30 representative building samples of different building typologies were selected for detailed investigation from each ward. Figure shows the existing building typology in Delhi.
CBRI has prepared GIS based ward wise map of Delhi along with different feature class like road, rail, important structures etc., for portrayal of seismic vulnerability of the region. The primary objective is to build a spatial Database and develop an empowerment tool, viz., Customized GIS Software that enables Criteria Based Analysis of the Scenario and helps in taking effective decision.
These maps act as guidance for future planning, risk reduction and disaster mitigation and management at different levels, by bringing in necessary modifications in the land-use zoning practices, building bye-laws & regulations, and retrofitting of existing structures.
Vulnerability Analysis of Framed Structures Against Earthquake
From the post disaster damage survey carried out by SERC, it has been noticed that a large number of reinforced concrete framed buildings with open storey at ground floor level, suffered extensive damage and in some cases catastrophic collapse during the infamous Bhuj (Gujarat, India) earthquake on January 26, 2001. This has brought into sharp focus the need to carryout systematic studies on the seismic vulnerability of such buildings.
SERC has taken the challenge in the national interest and studied the uncertainty in system parameters on seismic response of reinforced concrete framed structures, stochastic finite element modeling and analysis of a typical reinforced concrete framed structure with open storey. The stochastic dynamic response of reinforced concrete framed structures was characterized with uncertain system parameters subjected to random seismic excitation based on Stochastic Finite Element Method (SFEM) technique.
Based on these studies, SERC has proposed a methodology for generating acceleration response spectrum using fuzzy-random models of earthquake ground motions. The methodology will be useful for developing design response spectrums for the different seismic zones in India for different site conditions.
The fragility analysis of reinforced concrete framed structures is an essential part in developing a framework for risk analysis due to seismic excitation. Fragility analysis requires the results of reliability analysis for different levels of peak ground accelerations (PGAs). Scientists of SERC have carried out the linear dynamic finite element analysis of typical reinforced concrete framed structure under stochastic seismic loading to estimate the reliabilities. Using the statistical properties of the absolute maximum response and the AFOSM method of reliability analysis, reliability indices are computed and the failure probabilities are determined against different levels of damage state defined in FEMA 302. From the fragility curves developed, the unconditional probability of a specified damage state under a given earthquake loading was determined. Determination of failure probabilities against different damage states will be useful for identifying the vulnerability of the structure and will help in making decisions regarding repair/retrofit measures to be adopted.
Across–wind response of structures having different cross sectional shapes under atmospheric wind
Evaluation of dynamic wind loads on cooling towers, tall buildings, chimneys etc. is important for the design of such structures.A pressure measurement study on a 1:100 scaled building model with cross- section in plan was carried out in the SERC wind tunnel. The model had a plan size of 12cm x 12cm with a height of 48cm. Pressure taps were provided at six different levels and the model was tested under open terrain conditions. Similarly a 1:250 scaled model of a tall building with varying shapes at different levels was also tested for pressure measurements. The height of the model was 95cm. The portion of the model between 46cm and 80cm was provided with pressure taps and manifolds were used to measure area averaged loads. The model was tested for different angles of wind incidence, both in isolated condition and with the presence of a similar interfering structure.
SERC has developed a program, ‘ACLOCK’, for prediction of across-wind response of a RC chimney that is equally capable for predicting across-wind response of a steel chimney. Applying to a full scale, model steel chimney, validated the method. The analytical predictions of across-wind response of both upstream and down stream chimneys in a tandem arrangement were investigated using ACLOCK program.
Further, SERC has also studied wind tunnel pressure measurement on a rigid model of a cooling tower. The model to a geometric scale of 1:300 has a top diameter of 17.78cm, a throat diameter of 17.23cm, and a base diameter of 31.46cm. The total height of the model is 38.07cm and the height of throat level is 30.45cm. A wooden pattern was initially fabricated using in-house facilities, an acrylic sheet was heated to around 200 oC, and using the wooden pattern, the required cooling tower model was fabricated to 1:300 scales. This technique, attempted first in the laboratory, is found to be practical, as well as resulting in and achieves required profile of the cooling tower model.
Fiber optic sensors applied for health monitoring of civil engineering structures
Fiber optic sensors are reported to be suitable for health monitoring of concrete structures. Embedding bare fiber optic sensors in concrete structure is not advisable because of their fragility. The process for concrete placing and compacting through vibration exerts severe stress on the bare optical fiber causing damage to the sensor. Hence it is important to develop techniques of embedding fiber optic sensor safely inside the concrete. SERC scientists have evolved procedures for embedding fiber optic sensor in concrete. Performance studies of encapsulated sensor embedded in concrete cylinders indicate that cast epoxy sheets are best suitable as encapsulated material. Experimental studies to assess the performance of epoxy encapsulated fiber optic sensor at high strain ranges have also been carried out.
Energy saving potential of tilted glazing in buildings
The building sector consumes a sizable portion of the total energy produced in the country to provide appropriate indoor thermal and visual comfort levels. Due to prevailing energy crisis, interest in energy conservation in buildings has gained much momentum. Since significant energy is consumed in cooling the indoor environment in buildings, development of energy efficient design by applying common solar sense and taking maximum advantage of climate and surrounding is an approach, which is being advocated by researchers and building designers world over.
CBRI has prepared a scheme for reduction, due to the tilted glazing, in transmitted direct solar radiation through the glazing irrespective of the direction the glazing faces to. The benefit accrued is maximum for glazing oriented towards E, W, SE and SW directions for buildings located at latitudes higher than the tropic of cancer. In case of buildings located at stations below the tropic of cancer, the maximum benefit due to tilting of glazing is achieved for windows facing E, W, NE and NW directions. The reduction in transmitted radiation also increases with increase in the tilt of glazing. Studies reveal that for achieving significant benefit, a 12o tilt in glazing can be easily provided by flushing the bottom and top of glazing with the inner side and outer side respectively of a conventional 23 cms thick brick wall.
New technique for fire protection- Direct Foam Injection (DFI)
The Direct Foam Injection technique, conceptualised and indigenously developed by CBRI has been patented in India and USA and is now ready for commercialization. Detailed engineering is in progress for technology transfer in the Oil Sector in India with M/s. Engineers India Ltd., New Delhi with statutory approval from Chief Controller of Explosives under Explosives Act 1884.
Study for formulation of BIS code for ‘Use of Glass in Buildings’
CBRI is facilitating the use of glass as an emerging building material adding excellence in building appearance, efficiency in energy performance, acoustical performance and functional performance. Use of glass in buildings has increased many folds and is thus playing an important role as an element composing building spaces of excellence.
India is producing world-class glass with a range of strength & optical properties.
Glass industry, architects, builders and All India Flat Glass Manufacturers Association (AIFGMA) has taken a forward looking role and supported the preparation of guidelines for use of glass in commercial and residential buildings. The commonly used glass types – Normal (Annealed), Laminated, Tempered, Reflective, Insulating and Mirror are covered in this study.
The country does not have any code about ‘Use of Glass in Buildings’. The study would form the basis for formulation of a BIS code for ‘Use of Glass in Buildings’.
Studies for aerodynamic stability of cable stayed bridge deck
CRRI, sponsored by Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, has carried out a planned dynamic study of bridge deck due to turbulent flow of wind on cable supported bridges and developed the state-of-the art methodology for wind tunnel testing of long span cable stayed bridges in India using sectional model investigations. The method is simple and economical which gives reliable results.
The methodology and computer program developed is useful for future wind tunnel studies of bridges in India. As longer span cable stayed bridges are being planned in India, the study would lead to their proper aerodynamic design and ensure safety.
Monitoring of the long spans of second road bridge (North Carriageway) across Thane Creek, Mumbai, under the known superimposed live loads
CRRI has developed a new technology for the health assessment of the Second Thane Creek Road Bridge, Mumbai, using performance monitoring. This technology would help the user agency to plan and execute suitable bridge management policies as per the requirement.
CRRI and Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited have jointly developed multigrade bitumen conforming to PG (SHRP) grade specifications.
Two multigrade bitumen conforming to PG-52 and PG-64 have been developed and evaluated for different properties.
Products developed are premium products with reduced temperature susceptibility. It also indicates better adhesion properties than the conventional bitumen. A single grade can be used for the entire country.
Preparation of master plan for rural roads in Jharkhand
CRRI has prepared, on request from Government of Jharkhand, a district rural road plan and core network for all the districts of Jharkhand. CRRI has created GIS based database for the entire 212 blocks of the 22 districts of Jharkhand. The available infrastructure and amenities of each habitation have been scrutinized.
Assessment of structural health and preparation of rehabilitation scheme for distressed Madhya Ganga Canal bridge on SH-14 near Garh Mukteshvar, UP
The condition of the super structure of the 3-span simply supported bridge on Madhya Ganga Canal, Garhmuketshwar, built in 1983 is deterioting very fast. CRRI has used non-destructive testing methods such as rebound hammer, ultrasonic pulse velocity, crack mapping and structural response of the structure in terms of deflection by load test to assess the damage. Further to this, load tests on span carried out to examine the elastic behaviour under load test, which is lower than to the designed load. CRRI has adopted the suspension wire method for load testing. Also the crack locations have been mapped and width of cracks are measured in main beams and diaphragms. The studies has helped the bridge to be operational by rehabilitation to meet the requirement of plying traffic of desired load class by using NDT results, lab. test, field investigations and theoretical analysis judiciously.
The study highlights the usefulness of the scheme for rehabilitation/strengthening of the distressed bridges. The suggested strengthening scheme is sufficient to qualify the bridge for 2- lane of IRC class A loading and it is within 20 percent of the cost of replacement of the bridge.
Microsurfacing of roads
The highway professionals consider Microsurfacing as a vital technique for maintenance of roads. Microsurfacing is a mixture of polymer modified emulsified bitumen, dense graded crushed mineral aggregate, mineral filler, water and chemical additives to facilitate early setting of mix. CRRI has developed the technology for microsurfacing and could utilize a microsurfacing machine, procured by the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways for Assam PWD (NH Division).
CRRI has designed & developed job mix for ISSA grading III @12 Kg aggregate/m2
10.5% NR latex, modified emulsion, 0.5% cement and 0.25% additive. The machine was calibrated for these deliveries, as the mix is successful. About 7000 sq. m area has already been laid using this technology. The technique has been found to be successful on a number of roads in Delhi also.
Evaluation of performance characteristics of road sections constructed using Natural Rubber Modified Bitumen (NRMB)
CRRI has conducted a detailed study, which shows that incorporation of 2-4% natural rubber in bitumen improve properties of bitumen and bitumen mixes enhance the life of pavement surfacing.
The better performance of test sections with NRMB in bituminous binder courses and wearing courses indicated that performance of roads with NRMB is better with the use of NR in bitumen modification. The use of natural rubber in this diversified application leads to better economic conditions for the rubber growers also.
Dissemination of HDM-4 in India and Asia Pacific
The Asian Development Bank has funded Highway Development and Management Version 4. This is basically a Training and Dissemination Project, which has been developed in response to the needs that have arisen as a result of the introduction of HDM-4 - a replacement for HDM-3. The aim is to develop sustainable capacity in training and dissemination at regional and country level, related to the application of HDM-4 in the development and management of road based infrastructure, with the ultimate goal of achieving significant improvements in the performance of the road sector in member countries.
This is an ongoing process and CRRI is developing manpower especially in India who would be able to use the software in real life situation with clear understanding of different parameters used in HDM-4 so that they could develop rational pavement maintenance management systems. The effort has become by and large successful and CRRI has trained around 100 personnel of different organisations in India and abroad. This programme has brought the Institute in the forefront of HDM-4 dissemination programme all over the world.
Hon’ble State Minister for Science & Technology, Shri Bachi Singh Rawat, evincing keen interest in the Industry sponsored R&D work in progress.
NEW FACILITIES ADDED
- Scanning Electronj Microscope
- X-ray Diffraction equipment
- Environmental chamber
- Infra-red Thermography
- Ground Penetrating Radar
- Pile Diagnostic system
- Cyclic Triaxial Accelograph
- Reliability Test Set-up for Semiconductor Laser and Photodetectors for estimating the life expectancy of laser diodes.
- Test Set up for pressure sensor performance in the pressure range of 14.7 to 1470 psi (1 to 100 bar) Visual Alignment System for Precision Presco Thick Film Screen Printer for printing on LTCC tape.
- Step Height Surface Profiler.
- Laser Beam Profiler.
- Laser Pattern Generator for Photo mask fabrication.
- Hydrogen Gas Generating System
- MEMS Pro CAD tool installed and tested to solve some complex MEMS design problems like Piezoelectric Element, Pressure Sensor based on Piezoresistive Wheat Stone Bridge, Gyroscope System and Accelerometer.
- 6” dia silicon wafer cleaning set up installed.
- 2 nos. of class 10 clean air stations procured and installed in Millimeter Wave Device Laborato
- LCTF (Liquid Crystal Tunable Filter) with a Colour CCD Camera and Software facility created
1.4.2 HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT
Provided training to final year BE/B.Tech,MCA/ME/M.Tech/M.Sc./B.Sc.(Hons) students from various academic institutions.
|Long Term (6 months and above)|
|Short Term (2-6 months)||15|
- National Seminar on ‘Towards Self Reliance in Power’ (SRP 2003) held during April 18-19 2003. Participants: 200, Papers: 42..
- National Conference on Investment Casting (NCIC 2003)held during September 22-23 2003. Papers: 33.
- International Conference on Grain Drying in South Asia (GDSA 2003) held during December 1-2 2003. Papers: 35.
- National Conference on Advanced Manufacturing & Robotics (AMR 2004)held during January 10-11 2004. Papers: 108.
- Training Programme for the Engineers of North-Eastern Region for Capacity Building, sponsored by Department of Development of North Eastern Region (DONER), Govt. of India, has been organized.
- Ground Improvement Techniques and Landslide Management
- Field & Laboratory Testing of Material for Quality Control Aspects of Road works.
- Inspection, Maintenance and Rehabilitation of Bridges.
- Planning, Design, Construction and Maintenance of Pavements
- 11th Management Development Programme on Operation, Maintenance & Repair of Bio-Medical Equipment organized during 17th September -11th November 2003. (Sponsored by Ministry of External Affairs, Govt. of India under ITEC / SCAAP Programme).
- 4th Management Development Programme on Operation, Maintenance & Repair of Analytical Equipment organized during 14th January 2004– 9th March 2004. (Sponsored by Ministry of External Affairs, Govt. of India under ITEC / SCAAP Programme).
- Training Programmes on Repair & Maintenance of Bio-Medical Instruments for Hospital Technicians/Doctors conducted at different places (Sponsored by Department of Science & Technology, New Delhi)
- Courses Conducted by Indo-Swiss Training Centre (ISTC) of CSIO
- Human Resource Development is an ongoing activity of the Institute in the areas of:
- Instrument Technology
- Mechatronics & Industrial Automation
- Die & Mould Making
|Course Name||Course Duration, Importance of Programme & No. of Programmes||Number, Level & Type of Participants||Benefits Derived by the Participants|
|CNC Milling Part Programming||Two weeks. CNC programming is the new trend in industry
No of Programmes: 4 during 2003-04
|[Eight] Diploma/Degree in Engg. Sponsored and Individual||Learned past programming for machining on CNC milling machine along with theoretical inputs|
|Design of Press Tools||Two weeks. Press Tools Designers are required in the industry
No. of Programmes: 1 during 2003-04
|[Two] Diploma in Engg Sponsored||Basics of Press Tools Design of various types and hands-on practice|
- Workshop on “Materials & Technologies For Reducing Corrosion, Maintenance & Cost In Sugar Mills”
- International conference on Water and Environment - 2003 (WE-03).
- Training programme related to sampling and analysis of nutrients in sea water and statistical analysis of data during February 2 – 4 , 2004.
- CPYLS programe organized during 22-23 December.
1.4.3 RECOGNITION & AWARDS
|Technical competence to perform specific types of testing, measurement and calibration as per international criteria in diverse fields like electrical, mechanical, thermal and fluid.||CMERI|
|CSIR Technology Award for the design development of Sonalika Tractor||Hardyal Singh, R. Nigam, M.K. Banerjee, U.S. Karail, H.S.Toor, S.S. Sehmby, A. Nandy, CMERI|
|‘VIGYAN GAURAV SAMMAN’ by the Council of Science & Technology, Department of Science & Technology, Govt. of Uttar Pradesh||Dr. R.P. Bajpai, CSIO|
|Dr Myung Se Kim Award of Excellence in Hyperthermic Oncology by Indian Association of Hyperthermic Oncology & Medicine||Shri R.N. Sengupta, CSIO|
|ISO 9001 : 2000 Certification||CSIO|
|ISO 9001:2000 Certification||CRRI|
|Fellow of Maharashtra Academy of Science for the year 2003||Dr.(Mrs.) N.P. Thacker, NEERI|
|JSPS Invitation Fellowship award (research at AML-NIMS, Tsukuba, Japan)||Dr. Nitin K. Labhsetwar, NEERI|
|National Technology Award 2003||Dr. C. Arumughan, MM. Sreekumar, B. Sankarikutty, MA. Sumathikutty, K.P. Padmakumari, RRL-Thiruvananthapuram|
|MRSI Medal||Dr. BC. Pai Dr. CKS. Pillai, RRL-Thiruvananthapuram|
|CRSI Bronze Medal||Dr. Ajaya Ghosh Dr. D. Ramaiah ,RRL-Thiruvananthapuram|