Biological Sciences

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

Athwal, Dilbagh Singh (DOB: 12 October 1928), Sp: Genetics & Plant Breeding. 2206 TIIU Court, Toms River, NJ 08755, USA.

Citation Dr Sarkar has made outstanding contribution in developing reconstituted sendai viral envelops containing only the fusion protein for efficient gene delivery for therapeutic application.

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
1977 AAnand Kumar, Trichnopoly Chelvaraj (DOB: 18 June 1936), Sp: Reproductive biology & fertility regulation; Neuroendocrinology; Primate biology; electron microscopy. Hope Clinic Pvt. Ltd., 12, Aga Abbas Ali Road, Bangalore 560 042. Tel (080) 5599607, Fax 5598286, Email : anand @ giasbg01.vsnl.net.in
Citation Dr Anand Kumar has to his credit major contributions in the area of neuro-endocrinology of primate reproduction. He has demonstrated the presence of gonadal hormones in the cerebro-spinal fluid (csf) and their transport to the brain. His work on fertility regulation, especially the administration of contraceptive steroids through the nasal route which results in their preferential transfer into the csf, is of distinct advantage in developing newer approaches to contraception.
1964 Citation Dr Athwal, has made important contributions to knowledge on genetics of rust resistance in wheat. His recent contributions relate to the genetics and breeding of pearl millet, gram, wheat and tobacco, the most outstanding being the development of the first commercial hybrid in bajra. Hybrid Bajra No. 1 developed by him has demonstrated its potential to give nearly double the yield obtained from the traditional variety and heralds a new era in the cultivation of this important foodgrain. The cytoplasmic male sterile lines and a large number of genetic stocks developed by him will make a significant contribution in future research on bajra breeding and genetics.
1962 Bachhawat, Bimal Kumar  (DOB: 16 August 1925), Sp: Biochemistry; Neurochemistry; Liposomes; Immunology. Expired.
Citation   Dr Bachhawat has contributed to knowledge on the metabolism of mucopolysaccharides, gangliosides and cerebrosulphatides, especially in relation to brain function.
1974 Barnabas,  John  (DOB: 12 October 1929), Sp: Molecular evolution.  Expired.
Citation   Prof. Barnabas has made important contributions in the field of evolutionary genetics through his studies on the sequences of amino acids in haemoglobin of mammals. His work has contributed to having a deeper understanding of evolution. Prof. Barnabas has developed methods which make it possible to use molecular structure to measure evolutionary distance as well as rates of evolutionary  change. His work is marked by experimental ingenuity and incisiveness.
1979 Bhaduri, Amar Nath  (DOB: 11 November  1935), Sp : Enzymology; Parasite biochemistry; Parasitology. Indian Institute of Chemical Biology,   4 Raja S C Mullick Road, Calcutta 700 032. Tel (033)4733491, 4375197 (O), 4735832, 4178424(R), Fax  4730284, Email : iichbio @ giascl01.vsnl.net.in
Citation   Prof. Bhaduri has made significant contributions to the study of the enzyme UDP glucose 4-epimerase. He has thrown new light on the regulatory properties of enzymes catalyzing freely reversible reactions. His work has led to a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanism of allostericity. It constitutes a notable contribution to our understanding of enzymology.
1994 Bhattacharya, Alok  (DOB: 2 February 1951), Sp: Molecular parasitology.   School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi-110 067.  Tel  6560016, 6133295 (R), Fax  6865866
Citation   Dr Bhattacharya has done pioneering work on the identification and characterization of lipophosphoglycan and its modulation by bacterial flora, and a novel species-specific calcium binding protein and its gene, in Entamoeba histolytica.  Identification of these molecules has opened up avenues to understand pathogenesis at the molecular level.
1988 Bhattacharyya, Bhabatarak  (DOB: 2 December 1944), Sp: Protein chemistry; structure and functions of proteins; Fluroscence spectroscopy in proteins.  Department of Biochemistry, Bose Institute,  Centenary  Building,  P-1/12  CIT  Scheme VII  M, Calcutta-700 054.  Tel  (033) 3379416/ 9544/ 9219, Fax  3343886, Email:bablu@ boseinst.ernet.in
Citation   Dr Bhattacharyya has made significant contributions to the understanding of tubulin-microtubule system. His studies on colchicine-tubulin interaction indicate that the irreversible binding of colchicine is possibly due to the carbonyl group on the side chain of B-ring.
1972 Biswas, Birendra Bijoy  (DOB: 1 March 1928), Sp: Plant Biochemistry; Molecular Biology; Genetic Engineering.  Department of Biophysics, Calcutta University, 92, Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Calcutta-700 009. Tel  (033) 3510359 (O), 3348649 (R), Fax 3510360, Email : bbbiswas @ cubmb.ernet.in
Citation   Prof. Biswas has done significant work on regulation of RNA and protein synthesis in the cell, particularly plant cell. He has contributed to understanding the metabolic cycle involving glucose-6-P and myoinositol phosphates during the formation and germination of seeds. His studies have opened up new vistas in the transcription process in higher organisms as well as in the regulation of some of the enzyme functions in relation to biosynthesis of inositol phosphates.
1990 Brahmachari, Samir Kumar  (DOB: 1 January 1952), Sp: Structural biology; Biophysical chemistry; Molecular biology.  Centre for Biochemical Technology, Mall Road, Delhi-110 007. Tel (011) 7257298,  7257578(O), 6832601(R),  Fax 7257471, Email : csircbt@del2.vsnl.net.in;skb @ cbt.res.in
Citation   Dr Brahmachari has made contributions in regard to functional interactions of DNA. His work has helped to elucidate the sequence dependence of the conformation of Z-DNA. He and his associates have shown that the action of certain restriction endonucleases is sensitive to local conformational alterations and the Z-conformation blocks the action of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase-1.
1979 Chandrashekaran, Maroli Krishnayya  (DOB: 4 January 1937), Sp: Chronobiology field ethology; Animal behaviour and neurophysiology.  Department of Animal Behaviour, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur P.O., Bangalore-560 064. Tel  (080) 8462750-7(O), 640700 (R), Fax 8462766, Email : mkc @ jncasr.ac.in
Citation   Prof. Chandrashekaran has done significant work on biological rhythms in plants and animals. His work on the circadian rhythms of tropical mammals, especially the bats which exchange ultrasonic sound information in the cave environment, has led to an understanding of the existence of social synchronization of these rhythms. Another notable contribution of Prof. Chandrashekaran is elucidation of ‘eclosion clock’ in the fruit-fly Drosophila.
1992 Chatterji, Dipankar  (DOB: 20 April 1951), Sp: Biophysical chemistry; Molecular biology.  Molecular Biophysics Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore - 560 012. Tel (080) 3092612 (O), Fax 3341683, 3342085
Citation   Dr Chatterji has studied the mechanism by which RNA polymerase of Escherichia coli gets switched from the initiation to elongation mode and also mapped the active site geometry of the enzyme. He has shown that the sigma subunit is released from RNA polymerase after it has transcribed a short transcript of 3-7 nucleotides.
1980 Datta, Asis  (DOB: 2 February 1944), Sp: Molecular biology. Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi-110 067. Tel  (011) 6162016 (O), 6167557 Ext 2001 (VC,O), 6862623 Ext 2701(R), Fax 6198234, 6165886, Email: adatta @jnuniv.ernet.in
Citation   Prof. Datta has done significant work in the field of molecular biology. His work on gene regulation in yeast using an inducible N-acetylglucosamine catabolic pathway is a notable contribution and has advanced knowledge on the mechanism of gene expression in eukaryotes.
1992 Dharmalingam, Kuppamuthu  (DOB: 3 January 1949), Sp: Molecular Genetics; Genetic Engineering. Biotechnology.  School  of Biotechnology, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai-625 001. Tel (0452) 859115, 859280 (O), 858448 (R), Fax  859105, Email :  mkubic@giasmd01.vsnl.net.in
Citation   Dr Dharmalingam was the first to discover the induction of mutagenic DNA repair during restriction of nonglucosylated T4 DNA in Escherichia coli. He also discovered in this system the alleviation of restriction by SOS functions. He has characterized the rglA (mcrA) and rglB (mcrB) components of the rgl (mcr) restriction system.
1976 Dutta, Guru Prakash  (DOB: 19 November 1933), Sp: Protozoology; Cell biology; Malaria; Amoebiosis; Leishmaniasis; Immunology.  Division of Microbiology, Central Drug Research Institute, Post Box No. 173, Chattar Manzil, Lucknow-226001. Tel  (0522) 32411 (O), 331932 (R)
Citation   Dr Dutta’s work has been aimed at getting an understanding of the functional morphology of the various components of the protozoa. He has developed new techniques for their culture. He has also elucidated the metabolic and growth responses of several micro-organisms, including Entamoeba histolytica, to various physico-chemical factors. Dr Dutta’s main field of activity has been experimental protozoology.
1984 Easwaran, Kalpathy Ramaier Katehap  (DOB: 7 July 1939), Sp: Molecular biophysics; Magnetic resonance spectroscopy.  Molecular Biophysics Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560 012. Tel (080) 3344411, 3092611, 3092713(O), 3415221(R), Fax 3341683, Email : krke @ mbu.iisc.ernet.in
Citation   Dr Easwaran has made important contributions in respect of conformational, mechanistic and kinetic aspects of transmembrane ion transport mediated by carrier ionophores which have led to a possible model at molecular level for transmembrane cation transport.
1993 Gadagkar, Raghavendra  (DOB: 28 June 1953),  Sp: Insect sociobiology and the Evolution of social life in Animals. Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560 012.  Tel (080) 3314463, 3092340 (O), 3319758 (R), Fax  3315429, 3341683, Email : ragh @ ces.iisc.ernet.in
Citation   Dr Gadagkar has discovered the phenomena of behavioural caste differentiation and pre-imaginal caste  bias in eusocial insects. He has demonstrated that differential larval nutrition is a major determinant of social differentiation.
1986 Gadgil, Madhav Dhananjaya  (DOB: 24 May 1942), Sp: Ecology; Environment and development. Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560 012. Tel (080) 3315453, 3340985 (O), 3346376 (R), Fax  3315428, 3341683,  Email : madhav @ ces.iisc.ernet.in
Citation   Prof. Gadgil has made significant contributions to ecology, population biology and the theory of evolution of social behaviours.
1963 Ganguly, Jagannath  (DOB: 1 April 1921), Sp: Biochemistry of lipids and vitamin A.  281 Raja Mahal Vilas Extension, Bangalore-560 080.      Tel  (080) 3341304 (R)
Citation   Prof. Ganguly is internationally known for his work on the metabolism of  vitamin A, biosynthesis of fatty acids and intestinal absorption of lipids.
1997 Gowrishankar, Jayaraman  (DOB: 24 March 1956),  Sp: Microbial and molecular genetics; Physiology and gene regulation.   Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Uppal Road, Hyderabad-500 007. Tel  (040) 7172241, 7172513 (O), Fax  7171195, Email : shankar @ ccmb. ap.nic.in
Citation Dr Gowrishankar has made significant contributions in elucidating the molecular genetics of osmoregulation in Escherichia coli  with important biotechnological applications. This work has led to the development of a salt inducible expression vector. Recently, he has developed an imaginative bacterial system to demonstrate that mutations can arise in stationary state bacteria.
1985 Gupta, Chhitar Mal  (DOB: 1 September 1944), Sp: Membrane and molecular genetics; Physiology and gene regulation.   Central Drug Research Institute, Chattar Manzil, P.O.-173, Lucknow-226 001. Tel  (0522) 223286, 214219, 210932 (O), 321625, 322552 (R), Fax 223405, 223938, Email: root % cdrilk@ sirnetd.ernet.in
Citation   Dr Gupta has made significant work aimed at gaining understanding of  the basis of phospholipid asymmetry in biological membranes.
1973 Guraya, Sardul Singh  (DOB: 12 October 1930), Sp: Reproductive physiology; Cell and development biology. Department of Zoology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004. Tel (0161) 401960 Extn 240(O),  452434 (R), Fax 400945
Citation   Dr Guraya’s main contributions have been in the fields of cell biology and reproduction. Dr Guraya’s work on histology and ultra-structure of the mammalian ovary has thrown light on folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis. His research on follicular atresia has enabled gaining understanding of the buiding up of interstitial tissue and the latter’s part in hormone formation.
1995 Hasnain, Seyed Ehtesham  (DOB: 13 April 1954), Sp: Molecular Biology. National Institute of Immunology,  H-8, NII Campus, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi - 110 067.  Tel  (011) 6189622, 6162231, 6167623 (O), 6184753 (R),  Fax 6162125, 6177626,   Email : ehtesham @ nic.ernet.in
Citation   Dr Hasnain has made pioneering contributions to understanding the fundamental process involved in gene expression in the baculovirus system. His discovery of an unusual host protein factor that binds to previously unknown DNA sequence motifs of the baculovirus polyhedrin gene producer opens up a new horizon in the regulation of transcription of very late viral genes.
1966 Jain, Hari Krishan  (DOB: 28 May 1930), Sp: Cytogenetics and plant breeding.  40, Surya Niketan, Vikas Marg Extn.,  Delhi-110 092.  Tel  (011) 2152560, 2143451 (R), Fax  5754640, 5753678
Citation   Dr Jain has made extensive contributions in the field of genetic recombination, including its mechanism and regulation, more particularly its control at interchromosome level. A new hypothesis on such a control has been  developed and considerable experimental evidence has been obtained in support of it. Dr Jain’s work on tomato and later on Drosophila has provided what  is regarded as perhaps  the first convincing evidence in support of the phenomenon of mutagen specificity. Manipulation of mutation rates and spectrum has been one of the main objectives of contemporary mutation  research. Dr Jain’s work has been an important contribution in this direction. His other studies relate to the synthesis of RNA in plant cells, more particularly the demonstration of hyperactive nature of the nucleolus-organizing in this synthesis.
1982 Jayaraman, Ramamirtha  (DOB: 10 October 1937),  Sp: Microbial/ Molecular genetics.  Department of Molecular Biology, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai-625 021.  Tel  (0452) 858210 (O), 858469 (R),  Fax  859105, Email : molbio % bic.mku @ imtech.ernet.in
Citation   Dr Jayaraman has done significant work on the genetics of bacteria in relation to control of transcription. His studies have provided direct genetic evidence for the participation of accessory factors in transcription. His contributions include interactions of these factors with RNA polymerase.
1971 Kanungo, Madhu Sudan  (DOB: 1 April 1927),  Sp: Biochemistry; Molecular biology.  Department of Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221 005. Tel (0542) 316801 Extn 354 (O), 316540 (R), Fax 317074, Email : kanungo @ banaras.ernet.in
Citation   Dr Kanungo has to his credit certain new approaches to the study of the changes in some key enzymes of the brain, heart, muscle and liver of the rat in relation to ageing processes. He has been able to identify the changes in the qualitative nature of enzymes, their modulation by various regulators, and induction and repression of their syntheses by hormones as the function of age.
1981 Kumar, Sushil  (DOB: 14 December 1940), Sp: Molecular & general genetics; Plant microbe interaction; Genetic engineering; Plant breeding; Human Resource Development.  Central Institute of Medicinal & Aromatic Plants, Lucknow-226 015.  Tel (0522) 342683 (O), 389609 (R), Fax 342666, Email : root @ cimap.sirnetd.ernet.in
Citation   Dr Sushil Kumar has made significant contributions in the broad area of gene expression in Escherichia coli and its phage lambda. His principal contributions involve the demonstration that the dispensable cAMP-receptor protein complex determines adaptation in bacteria by controlling the structure of cell wall. His recent contribution on mutants of Rhizobium having high nitrogen fixing ability has far-reaching implications in agriculture.
1989 Lakhotia, Subhash Chandra  (DOB: 4 October 1945), Sp: Cytogenetics; Molecular biology.  Department of Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221 005. Tel (0542) 316145 (O), 312012 (R)  Fax 317457, Email : lakhotia @ banaras.ernet.in
Citation   Prof. Lakhotia has made outstanding contributions to the fields of cytogenetics and cell biology. His work has shed important light on chromosome organization and replication in Drosophila and heat shock response at the 93D locus of  Drosophila melanogaster.
1972 Maheshwari, Satish Chandra  (DOB: 4 October 1933), Sp: Plant physiology; Biochemistry; Plant Molecular biology. International  Centre for Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology, Aruna Asaf Ali Road, New Delhi-110 067. Tel  (011) 6181242 (O), Fax  6162316 Email : maheshwari @ icgebnd.ernet.in
Citation   Prof.  Maheshwari has made significant contributions in plant and cell physiology, particularly in the physiology and biochemistry of growth and differentiation in plants. His researches have led to isolation of cytokinins and gaining understanding of their role in flowering. Prof. Maheshwari and his group have recently discovered the technique of raising haploid plants by anther culture. Development of haploids by anther and pollen culture technique makes possible the establishment of homozygous lines in plants and opens the area of biochemical genetics of higher plants.
1995 Muniyappa, Kallapa  (DOB: 8 September 1952),  Sp: Molecular genetics; Molecular biology. Department of  Biochemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560 012. Tel (080) 3092235, 3092309 (O), 3378192 (R),  Fax 3341683, 3341814, Email : kmbc @ biochem.iisc.ernet.in
Citation   Dr Muniyappa has made outstanding contributions to the elucidation of the molecular basis of homologous genetic recombination. In particular, he has used RecA paradigm to understand the effects of chromatization of DNA on homologous pairing and strand exhange which has opened up new vistas to discern this complex phenomenon at the cellular context, which has implications for robust gene targeting.
1993 Murthy, Mathur Ramabhadrashastry Narasimha  (DOB: 27 April 1950), Sp: Macromolecular crystallography; Structural biology; Molecular Biophysics Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560 012. Tel (080) 3092612 (O), 3372981 (R), Fax  3341683, 3342085, Email  : mrn @ mbu.iisc.ernet.in
Citation   Dr Murthy  and his group have worked out the three-dimensional structure of Sesbania mosaic virus at 2.9Å resolution by X-ray diffraction technique. His contributions have sharpened the understanding of how the complex molecular assemblies are put together in viruses.
1973 Murty, Bhyravabhotla Radhakrishna  (DOB: 4 April 1928), Sp: Biometry; Genetics; Radiation genetics.  5087, B-7, Vasant Kunj, New Delhi-110 070. Tel  6897856 (R)
Citation   Dr Murty, an outstanding biometrical geneticist, has developed a new school of thought utilizing multivariate analysis for assessment of genetical divergence of crops with different breeding systems. His basic approach on the selection of developmental traits in both self- and cross-pollinated crops has helped considerably in the improvement of grain quality, disease resistance and productivity of agricultural crops.
1994 Nagaraj, Ramakrishnan  (DOB: 10 February 1953), Sp: Biophysics; Membrane biochemistry; Protein biochemistry. Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad - 500 007, 12-13-483/5, Nagarjunanagar, Tarnaka, Hyderabad-500 007.  Tel  (040) 7172241 (O), 7019882 (R),  Fax  7171195 Email : nraj @ ccmb.ap.nic.in
Citation   Dr Nagaraj has made contributions towards delineating structure-activity relationships for membrane targeting signal peptides and  peptide antibiotics. His work has successfully established the separation of hemolytic and antibacterial properties in synthetic analogs of bacterial toxins leading to possibilities in rational design of antibiotic peptides.
1971 Nair, Narayana Balakrishnan  (DOB: 6 July 1927), Sp:Biodegradation of cellulose; Conservation and management of aquatic resources.  Department of Aquatic Biology and Fisheries, University of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram-695 007. Tel  (0471) 500138 (O), 323746 (R)
Citation   Prof. Balakrishnan Nair has carried out extensive researches on marine fouling organisms.  During the past five years, he has made outstanding contributions to our  knowledge on the wood-boring molluscs, particularly the mechanism of boring of timber by them.
1983 Padmanaban, Govindarajan  (DOB: 20 March 1938), Sp: Eukaryotic gene expression..  Department of Biochemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560 012.  Tel (080) 3092213, 3092540, 3341690(O), 3342223 (R), Fax  3341683/936, Email : diroff @ admin.iisc.ernet.in; geopee @ biochem.iisc.ernet.in
Citation   Prof. Padmanaban has to his credit significant work on haemoprotein biosynthesis. His work has helped in gaining understanding of the regulation of the biosynthesis of cytochrome P-450 and cytochrome oxidase. His work is of importance in elucidating the molecular basis of drug metabolism.
1991 Pandey, Virendra Nath  (DOB: 8 October 1947), Sp: Protein chemistry; Molecular biology.   Biochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay-400 085. 
Citation   Dr Pandey has demonstrated the presence of a DNA recombinase enzyme complex associated with the thymic nuclear matrix of young rats. The complex specifically occurs in prelymphocytes and is presumably involved in the rearrangement and recombination of genes for the generation of immunodiversity in vertebrates.
1984 Pandian, Thavamani Jegajothivel  (DOB: 15 June 1939), Sp: Biology; Animal energetics and genetics; Aquaculture; Fish genetics and breeding.   School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai-625 021.  Tel  (0452)  858212, 858230 (O), 640139 (R),   Fax 859139, 531056, Email : tjp % bic-mku @ dbt.ernet.in;  mathavan @ pronet.xlweb.com
Citation   Prof. Pandian has done significant work in the fields of bioenergetics and animal ecology and has developed a prediction model for transformation of food energy into growth and metabolism.
1982 Podder, Sunil Kumar  (DOB: 1 February 1939), Sp: Biophysical chemistry.  Department of Biochemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560 012. Tel (080) 3092213 (O), Fax 3341683/936
Citation   Prof. Podder has made notable contributions on the chemical specificity of the recognition process in biological systems. He has demonstrated that specificity can be expressed quantitatively in terms of free energy of association of amino acids of proteins with nucleic acid bases. He has also studied protein-carbohydrate interaction in a model membrane system.
1996 Prakash, Vishweshwaraiah (DOB: 23 November 1951), Sp: Structural biology & Physical biochemistry of proteins and enzymes.  Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore-570 013.  Tel (0821) 517760 (O), 510054 (R), Fax 516308, Email: prakash @ nicfos.ernet.in
Citation   Dr Prakash  for his work encompassing structure-function relationship and structural homology of seed proteins bearing on ligand binding, association-dissociation and denaturation profiles of these proteins. His work has been fundamental to understanding the behaviour of a number of seed proteins and enzymes in many diverse solvents from the point  of view of their stabilisation and destabilisation. The above work has generated an in-depth knowledge and signifies deep understanding of the structural biology of seed proteins from the biophysical angle.
1997 Rao, Kanury Venkata Subba (DOB: 27 September 1958),  Sp: Peptide-based vaccines for viral infections and peptide-based immunodiagnostics.  International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, NII Campus, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi-110 067. Tel (011) 6176680 (O), (0124) 367332 (R), Fax 6162316, Email : kanury @ icgeb.res.in
Citation   Dr Subba Rao has made outstanding contributions in the design of synthetic peptide vaccines based on the regeneration of conformational epitopes and self association of such peptides to give high immunogenicity in humans. He has also contributed significantly to the understanding of the antigen-specific B cell selection and amplification. He has also been involved in the development of HIV diagnostics.
1988 Rao, Manchalhalli Rangaswami Satyanarayana  (DOB: 21 January 1948), Sp: Molecular genetics and Biochemistry.  Department of Biochemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560 012.  Tel (080) 3092547 (O), 3303236 (R), Fax 3341683, Email : mrsrao@biochem.iisc.ernet.in
Citation   Prof. Rao has made vital contributions towards our understanding of the molecular mechanism of meiosis during spermatogenesis. He has identified several testis-specific proteins which may be involved in modulating the chromatin structure.
1966 Rao, Neelamraju Ganga Prasada  (DOB: 5 September 1927), Sp: Plant breeding and genetics.   HIG(OG), Block 10, Plot 4, Baghlingampally, Hyderabad - 500 044.  Tel  (040) 7618184 (R)
Citation Dr Rao has made important contributions in the field of sorghum breeding, leading to the release of the first commercial sorghum hybrids, CSH-1 and CSH-2 in India. Subsequently, a high yielding variety, Swarna, that equalled the commercial hybrid CSH-1 in yield levels, was developed and released for general cultivation. The performance of the first hybrids, following their release, demonstrated that the average yields of this rain-fed crop could be stablized at 2000-2500 kg/hectare as against the national average of only 400-500 kg/hectare. Maximum yields of the order of 7000 kg/hectare were recorded under optimum conditions. These hybrids also performed well in several African, South East Asian and Latin American countries. The advent of the hybrids has given rise to an organized hybrid sorghum seed industry in both public and private sectors.
1989 Ray, Manju (DOB: 1 January 1947), Sp: Enzymology; Metabolic regulation; Bioenergetics; Tumor biochemistry. Department of Biological Chemistry, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Calcutta-700 032. Tel (033) 4734971, Fax 4732805, Email : bcmr@iacs.ernet.in
Citation Dr Ray has firmly placed methylglyoxal, a biochemical enigma for a long time, as an integral component of carbohydrate and intermediary metabolism by isolation, purification and characterization of a series of enzymes involved in its anabolism and catabolism.
1960 Sadasivan, Toppur Seethapathy (DOB: 22 May 1913), Sp: Physiological plant pathology; Soil microbiology. “Gokulam”, 86/1 MK Amman Koil Street, Mylapore, Chennai - 600 004. Tel (044) 4980181 (R)
Citation Dr Sadasivan is well known for his work in mycology and plant pathology. His work on fungal wilts has attracted wide attention. His research work has considerable bearing on such fundamental concepts as production of toxins and antibiotics in soil and in the rhizosphere of plants and the changes in the physiology of the host. His recent studies concern the occurrence of blast disease of rice and its relationship with night temperatures. This has explained the hitherto unsolved problems of the causes of breakdown of resistance in rice to blast.
1991 Saidapur, Srinivas Kishanrao (DOB: 7 March 1947), Sp: Biology of reproduction; Comparative endocrinology. Department of Zoology, Karnatak University, Dharwad-580 003. Tel (0836) 348047 (O), 744857 (R), Fax 348047, 347884, Email : unikard@renbak.delhi.nic.in
Citation Dr Saidapur has contributed to comparative endocrinology of amphibians. He has elucidated the diverse patterns of reproductive processes and their control mechanisms in tropical anurans.
1981 Sane, Prafullachandra Vishnu (DOB: 24 December 1937), Sp: Plant biochemistry; Photosynthesis. National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow-226 001. Tel (0522) 271031-35 (O), 372201 (R), Fax 282849, 282881, Email : manager @ nbri.sirnetd.ernet.in
Citation Dr Sane has done significant work in the area of structure and function of the cellular organelle chloroplast involved in photosynthesis. This has been achieved by proposing the most likely locations of certain important enzymes in the thylakoid system. His suggestion of the role of proton translocating proteins in the chloroplast membranes has wide significance in proton movement across the membrane. His studies on light emission from photosynthetic membranes have contributed to the understanding of energy storage during electron transport.
1998 Sarkar, Debi Prasad (DOB: 15 January 1958), Sp: Molecular virology; Cell biology; Immunology; Model membrane & Drug targeting. Department of Biochemistry, University of Delhi South Campus, Benito Juarez Marg, Dhaula Kuan, New Delhi-110 021. Tel (011) 6881967/6112150 (O), 5544371 (R), Fax 6886427, 6885270
1978 Sasisekharan, Visvanathan ( DOB: 28 June 1933), Sp: Biomolecular structure; Chemical Physics; Quantum chemistry; Biochemistry. Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusettes Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Tel (001-617) 3543510 (R), (001-617) 3542455, Email:sasi@mit.edu
Citation Prof. Sasisekharan, has done significant work on the conformation of biopolymers, specially polynucleotides and polypeptides. He has developed incisive methods for arriving at optimal conformations of macromolecules. These methods have led him to suggest an alternative model for the Watson-Crick double helical structure of DNA. This model permits separation of polynucleotides without uncoiling and provides a novel solution to an unsolved paradox in biology.
1975 Sharma, Archana (DOB: 16 February 1932), Sp: Genetics; Chromosomes; Genetic toxicology. Department of Botany, Calcutta University, 35, Ballygunge Circular Road, Calcutta-700 019. Tel (033) 4753681/2 (O), 4405802 (R), Fax (033) 4748490
Citation Prof. (Mrs) Sharma has done significant work on chromosomes of plant and human systems, with special reference to differentiation and mechanisms of evolution. New techniques developed by her for studies on chromosomes have had a significant impact in the field of plant and human genetics.
1967 Sharma, Arun Kumar (DOB: 31 December 1924), Sp: Cytogenetics; Cytochemistry;Cell biology. Centre for Advanced Studies in Botany, Calcutta University, 35, Ballygunge Circular Road, Calcutta -700 019. Tel (033) 4753682 (O), 4405802 (R), Fax 4748490
Citation Prof. Sharma has built up an active school of research on cytogenetics and cytochemistry. He and his colleagues have developed a number of new techniques for the study of detailed chromosome strucutre of plants. A new concept of speciation in plants reproducing through sexual means has been developed and established by his group. He was able to induce division in adult nuclei through the application of chemicals and this has importance in cell rejuvenescence.
1975 Siddiqi, Obaid (DOB: 7 January 1932), Sp: Genetics; Neurobiology. National Centre for Biological Sciences, T I F R Centre, Indian Institute of Science Campus, Bangalore-560 012. Tel (080) 3343035(O), 3411372 (R), Fax 3343851, Email : osiddiqi @ ncbs.tifrbng.res.in
Citation Prof. Siddiqi has done significant work in molecular biology with special reference to transfer and recombination of DNA in micro-organisms and genetic regulation of protein synthesis. His studies have helped in clarifying the relationship between DNA replication and recombination.
1980 Singh, Jamuna Sharan (DOB: 26 December 1941), Sp: Ecology; Ecosystems analysis; Ecophysiology. Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221 005. Tel (0542) 317099 (O), 317593 (R), Fax 317074, Email : jssingh @ banaras.ernet.in
Citation Dr Singh has done pioneering work in the field of ecology with reference to grassland ecosystems, enunciating new concepts on trophic biomass relations, eco-physiology, energy flow, diversity and mathematical modelling of tropical grasslands. His contributions have added substantially to knowledge on the structure and function of grassland ecosystems in general and tropical grasslands in particular, which have important implications in their management.
1976 Singh, Kishan (DOB: 10 July 1931), Sp: Plant pathology; Phytonematology; Plant protection in sugarcane. 9 D, MIG Flats, Sheikh Sarai Part-I, New Delhi-110 017.
Citation Dr Singh has to his credit major contributions in sugarcane pathology and has organized under his leadership active teams of applied research in the field of sugarcane cultivation. His work in crop pathology covers a wide canvas, including viruses, mycoplasmas, fungi and nematodes. Of special significance are his contributions on epidemiology and control of sugarcane diseases, association of mycoplasma with grassy shoot disease and its control by hot air therapy.
1987 Sopory, Sudhir Kumar (DOB: 7 January 1948), Sp: Molecular plant physiology; Photoreceptor biology; Nitrogen metabolism; Plant tissue culture; Plant Molecular Biology. International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi-110 067. Tel (011) 6189358-61, 6175102 (R), Fax 6162316, Email : sopory@hotmail.com
Citation Prof. Sopory has done important work in the field of physiology of plant growth and development. His researches have led to a better understanding of the mode of action of phytochrome, and the possible involvement of calcium as a second messenger in higher plant cells.
1965 Subramanian, Chirayathumadom Venkatachalier (DOB: 11 August 1924), Sp: Taxonomy and biology of fungi; History and physiology of science. 19, Conran Smith Road, Gopalapuram, Chennai-600 086. Tel (044) 8234941(R)
Citation Prof. Subramanian has made significant contributions on taxonomy of Fungi imperfecti. His systematic exploration of the hyphomycete flora of India led to the discovery of many new and interesting genera. He has proposed a new system of classification of Hyphomycetes based on conidium ontogeny. His studies on and original interpretations of conidium ontogeny based on cell-wall relationships have led to the formulation of a terminology based on new concepts. Prof. Subramanian is well known for his work on soil mycology and soil-borne plant diseases, and for his contributions to knowledge on the systematics, distribution and ecological behaviour of soil Fusaria, and on the nutritional physiology, mainly nitrogen utilization of plant pathogenic species of Fusarium and Drechslera.
1987 Surolia, Avadhesha (DOB: 3 December 1947), Sp: Cell surface carbohydrates and biological recognition; Biophysical chemistry; Chemistry of proteins. Molecular Biophysics Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560 012. Tel (080) 3092714, 3092389 (O) 3347149 (R), Fax 3341683, Email : surolia @ mbu.iisc.ernet.in
Citation Prof. Surolia has made important contributions to our understanding of the biological activities of lectins. He has elucidated the steps involved in the recognition of carbohydrates by lectins, by studying the molecular forces, thermodynamics and specificities involved in the interaction. His findings have enhanced our understanding of carbohydrate-mediated recognition processes in biological systems.
1961 Swaminathan, Monkombu Sambasivan (DOB: 7 August 1925), Sp: Genetics and cytogenetics; Plant breeding; Agricultural research and development. MS Swaminathan Research Foundation, 3rd Cross Street, Taramani Institutional Area, Chennai-600 113. Tel (044) 2351229, 2351698 (O), 4345312 (R), Fax 2351319, Email: mssrf.madras @ sm8.sprintrpg.sprint.com
Citation Dr Swaminathan has set up a well-known school of research in the field of radiation genetics and mutation research at the Institute. His original contributions (1948-58) include elucidation of the origin of potato, dwarf coconut and bread wheat, nuclear cytology of yeasts, classification and genetics of polyploid plants, monosomic analysis in wheat, elucidation of the role of infection in heredity, relationship between chromosome associations and seed fertility in autopolyploids and standardization of techniques for overcoming interspecific incompatibility barriers. His later contributions (1959-64) relate to experimental manipulation of genes in a purposeful direction. This work has involved the introduction, selection and hybridization of a wide range of dwarf material by wheat containing the “Norin” dwarfing genes from Mexico and the use of a wide array of mutagens, both physical (X-rays, gamma-rays, fast and thermal neutrons, and b particles) and chemical (alkylating agents and free radicals).
1996 Swarup, Ghanshyam (DOB: 23 November 1953), Sp: Molecular biology; Biochemistry; genetic engineering; Protein phosphorylation; Signal transduction. Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Uppal Road, Hyderabad-500 007. Tel (040) 7172241, (011) 7151836 (R), Fax 7171195, Email : gshyam @ ccmb.ap.nic.in
Citation Dr Swarup has made important contributions in the area of cell biology. Notably, he has discovered a novel nuclear protein tyrosine phosphatase and shown that this protein is a positive regulator of cell proliferation.
1968 Venkitasubramanian, Tathamangam Ananthanarayanan (DOB: 1 January 1924), Sp: Biochemistry of Tubercle bacilli. Centre for Biochemical Technology, University of Delhi, Delhi-110 007.
Citation Dr Venkitasubramanian has done pioneering systematic investigations in India on the lipid metabolism of different strains of Tubercle bacilli. His researches on experimental tuberculosis have added significantly to knowledge on the biochemical pathology of the disease. These investigations help in early diagnosis of tuberculosis and in evolving effective chemotherapeutic agents. Studies carried out by him on cheap and commonly available plant proteins have useful implications in tackling the problem of protein malnutrition. He has developed several new and simple laboratory techniques for the analysis of biologically important compounds.
1998 Vijay Raghavan, Krishnaswamy (DOB: 3 February 1954), Sp: Developmental Genetics. National Centre for Biological Sciences, TIFR Centre, IISc Campus, Bangalore-560 012. Tel (080) 3345615, 3442133 (O), 3418504 (R), Fax (080) 3343851, Email : vijay@ncbs.tifrbng.res.in ; vijay @ tifr.res.in
Citation Dr Vijayraghavan has made outstanding contributions to the understanding of the role of homeotic genes in muscle development. His work on Drosophila flight muscle has been extremely incisive and makes a major contribution to our understanding of myogenesis.
1985 Vijayan, Mamannamana (DOB: 16 October 1941), Sp: Biological crystallography; Molecular biophysics. Molecular Biophysics Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560 012. Tel (080) 3092459 (O), 3346765 (Lab), 3340031 (R), Fax 3341683, Email : mv @ mbu.iisc.ernet.in
Citation Prof. Vijayan has done significant crystallographic studies on proteins and complexes of amino acids and other small molecules.